Skip to main content

Full text of "Indians at Work"

See other formats


Collection of Native North American Indian Books* 
Historical Books, Atlases, plus other important au- 
thors and family heirloom books. 
As of 12-31-93 

Earl Ford McNaughton 


Volume VI Number 3 


Editorial John Collier 1 

Three Agency Superintendents Seek Retirement 3 

Recent Changes Of Assignment 4 

How Many Second-Generation Indian Service 

Employees Are There? 4 

Indian Women Like To Work Together 5 

Indian Exhibit At San Francisco World's Fair 

Nears Completion Rene d 'Harnoncourt ... 10 

S. M. Dodd Leaves Indian Service 13 

Water, Alfalfa, And Cattle Erik W. Allstrom 14 

Cover Photograph 15 

Foster Home Placement Of Indian Children In 

Oklahoma 16 

Indian Council Fire Award For 1938 Won By 

Mark L- Burns, Chippewa 17 

The Yakima Tribal Credit Committee Takes 

Stock Of Its Work Philip Olney 18 

Weil-Known Standing Rock Sioux Dies 20 

Western Shoshone Girls Rid Reservation of 2,000 

Bushels Of Mormon Crickets Harold Smith 21 

Century-Old Petition From San Juan, New Mexico 22 

The American Indian Sign Language John P. Harrington ... 24 

Indians In The News 30 

Lands Restored To Southern Utes 31 

Trail Blazing On The Jicarilla W. J. Enbom 33 

J. C. Morgan Elected Navajo Council Chairman 33 

Good Stockraising Practice Essential To Success 

In Navajo Future John Collier 35 

Reader Tells Of Work Of Dr. Walter C. Roe, Mis- 
sionary, In Freeing Geronimo Apaches Richard H. Harper .... 40 

Visitors At The Washington Office 40 

Two New Oklahoma Indian Hospitals Dedicated 41 

Bert Staples Killed In AutomoDile Acciaent 41 

Emmet Wirt, Trader, At Jicarilla, N. M. , Dies 41 

Ponca Indian Women's Club Undertakes Varied 

Program 42 

Hide Tanning At Wind River, Wyoming 42 

From CCC-ID Reports 43 

- VOLUME VI • R0VEM5ER 1938 - NUM5ER. 3 < 

Because radio has supplemented newspapers, the recent 
news from Europe, with competent interpretation of it, has reached 
probably 95 of every 100 Americans. It has reached Indians in most 
places. The deeply troubling question: Can democracy live - can 
it hold its own - can it triumph? This question has "been forced 
upon all our minds. 

It is a question pressing in the thought of scores of In- 
dian tribes "because of the efforts they are making right now to 
achieve local democracy — and to mske it live and triumph. 

Viewing the five years past, in Indian enterprise, one 
can say that some - a good many - profound and brilliant achieve- 
ments of democracy, and of better life through democracy, have been 
registered by Indian groups. There have been some failures, too - 
or rather, some attempts not successful to date. All in all, the 
Indians' record proves that democracy is. one of the most powerful 
releasing and disciplining forces in human life. 

Because of the dark shadow now being cast from agonized 
Europe over all the continents, three thoughts about democracy are 
here set down. 

First. Democracy's eclipse in Europe is an eclipse under 
abnormal and transitory conditions. Amid universal war or imminent 
war the long-range values of life and society are submerged inevi- 
tably. Endemic armed conflict is not the condition under which 
democracy can succeed. But let us remember, too, that human life 
itself - economic existence - in the present world cannot long sur- 
vive "endemic armed conflict." Europe's (and Asia's) armed conflict 


will have to be resolved or else these peoples and nations will 
perish. Assuming that human life is to advance or even survive 
in these continents (which means that endemic war is to cease), 
then the present eclipse of democracy is to be viewed as a tempora- 
ry fact - and not a fact caused by any inherent weakness of democ- 

Second - The permanence of democracy as a force in human 
life is not dependent solely on those ideals of political democracy 
which have moved many peoples through the last two hundred years. 
Democracy's achievements, we now know, date back thousands of years 
- far into the Stone Age. Ultimately, the pursuit of democracy is 
closely allied to the pursuit of religion. It is the attempt to 
draw into the work and pleasure of the community the whole endowment 
of each individual, in order that the community may live and the in- 
dividual may live - may richly, greatly live. Now, for all the ter- 
ror now hanging over the world, each of us really knows that human 
life on this planet is young, not aged or senile. We know that the 
race has only started to be run. Not a few more years, but a mil- 
lion years" or many millions, are the future term of humanity on our 
globe. Such being the fact, let us be sure that the attempt to 
achieve democracy, which means depth of life, gladness of life, and 
goodness of life for all, will not be destroyed by any temporary 
disaster . 

Third - Like everything else in the complex body and soul 
of man and of his society, democracy is a thing of structure - of 
mechanisms - and not solely a thing of feeling and will. Organiza- 
tion, experimentation, the gathering of knowledge through trial and 
error, the pursuit of adequate forms: in other words, social tech- 
nology: these, and not only the pressure of the spirit, are essen- 
tial to democracy. It is the Western Hemisphere, and peculiarly the 
United States, which in the years now upon us can still pursue dem- 
ocracy under conditions reasonably normal and favoring of success. 
Whatever we here are able to save and to improve of democracy, will 
be a saving and improving of the most important heritage of life for 
the whole of the future world. 

So, returning to Indians. Democracy in a variety of forms 
is being pursued by many Indian groups with sustained earnestness, 
even passion, and is being pursued in the experimental spirit. It 
has produced, already, shining harvests, has made some Indian social 
deserts "blossom like the rose." The importance of this result to 
the whole future world (and regardless of the physical smallness of 
the Indian peoples) is more evident now (under the shadow cast from 
Europe and Asia) than it was five years ago, when the endeavor was 
started. ^« 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



Three superintendents have found it necessary to apply 
for retirement on grounds of physical disability: John E. Balmer 
of Turtle Mountain Agency in North Dakota; James B. Kitch of the 
San Carlos Agency in Arizona; and Lewis W. Page, Superintendent of 
the Choctaw Agency in Mississippi. 

Mr. Kitch's retirement application has gone through the 
Civil Service Commission and is completed; at this writing the ap- 
plications of Mr. Balmer and Mr. Page were still pending "before the 

Mr. Balmer, who is a member of the L'Anse Band of Chip- 
pewas, entered the Service in 1915 as assistant clerk at Tomah, 
Wisconsin. His assignments since then have been varied: he has 
worked at the former Wisconsin Winnebago Agency at Grand Rapids, 
Wisconsin; at Fort Apache, Arizona; at Fort Totten, North Dakota; 
at the Colorado River Agency in Arizona; at the Indian employment 
office in Phoenix; and at the former Leupp Agency in Arizona, where 
he became senior clerk in 1925 and superintendent in 1928. He lat- 
er became superintendent at the Western Navajo Agency in Arizona; 
when the Navajo consolidation took place in 1934, he became super- 
intendent at the Turtle Mountain Agency. In 1936 Mr. Balmer was 
severely hurt in an automobile accident while in the line of duty, 
receiving among other injuries, eight bone fractures. He has never 
entirely recovered, and has felt obliged to seek retirement. Mr. 
Balmer, whose real affection for Indians has shown itself at all 
his varied assignments, will be greatly missed in the event of his 

James B. Kitch began Indian Service work in 1912. He has 
served as examiner of inheritance; superintendent of the Standing 
Rock School in North Dakota; was superintendent at Fort Peck in Mon- 
tana; and transferred to San Carlos, Arizona, in 1923. There, under 
Mr. Kitch's vigorous leadership, the remarkable development of the 
San Carlos cattle industry took place. In 1923, when Mr. Kitch took 
office, the Indians' herd numbered 1,995 cows and 775 calves. At 
the end of 1937 their herd had grown to 31,643, and sales in that 
year brought the sum of $309,200 to these Apaches. 

Somewhat over a year ago, Mr. Kitch suffered a physical 
breakdown. While his condition has improved, he has not f Tilly re- 
covered, and consequently he has sought and been granted retirement. 
The Indian Service has lost an able and courageous administrator. 


Mr-. Page has had almost thirty years of Indian Service 
work. He taught school at Blackf eet , Montana, at White Earth, 
Minnesota and at Fort Berthold, North Dakota, where he transferred 
into the clerical field. He served as property and lease clerk at 
Tulalip, Washington, then as chief clerk; and as chief clerk at 
San Carlos, Arizona- He became superintendent at Fort Berthold, 
North Dakota, in 1926, and has also served as superintendent at 
Eastern Cherokee, North Carolina, and at Uintah and Ouray, Utah. 
In 1936, Mr. Page, whose health had for some time been poor, left 
agency administration work and became a CCC-ID supervisor with 
headquarters at Salt Lake City. In 1938 he became superintendent 
of the Choctaw Agency in Mississippi. Recurrence of ill health 
has prompted him to ask for retirement. 

Mr. Page, like Mr. Balmer and Mr. Kitch, has had the warm 
affection and respect of the Indians whom he has served, and his 
retirement, if it is carried through, will be deeply regretted by 
his associates. 



The following changes of assignment have taken effect: 
Harvey K. Meyer, formerly Superintendent of the Colville Agency 
in Washington, becomes Superintendent of the Choctaw Agency in Mis- 
sissippi, which is being left without a superintendent with the re- 
tirement of L • W. Page. Mr. Louis Balsam, Field Representative of 
the Commissioner, will take charge of the Colville Agency. Mr. S. 
R. McCray, formerly Superintendent of the Mescalero Agency in New 
Mexico, assumes the super intendency of the San Carlos Agency, Ariz- 
ona, left vacant by the retirement of Mr. James B. Zitch. Mr. 
Henry L. Newman, formerly business manager of the Albuqerque and San- 
ta Fe boarding schools under the United Pueblos Agency, becomes super- 
intendent of the L'escalero Agency in New Mexico. John H. Cricken- 
berger, formerly Chief Clerk at the Truxton Canon Agency in Ariz- 
ona, has been named superintendent of that agency. 



It has been remarked that there are a number of people 
in the Indian Service who at least knew what. they were getting into 
when they entered because they are the sons and daughters of former 
Indian Service employees. If those interested will write to H Ind- 
ians At Work", a list of these second-generation employees will be 
compiled and published. 



Anyone who has worked among Indians will say that Indian 
women retain their liking for doing their tasks together. This 
spirit of cooperation sometimes finds expression in civic, church 
or neighborhood clubs which undertake definite programs; frequent- 
ly, however, it shows itself in spontaneous neighborhood gatherings 
for mutual help. The photographs on the following four pages show 
group activities among Indian women in various areas. 

Sewing Circle At San Carlos, Arizona. 


Choctaw Women Basket -Makers At St. Matthews 
Church, McCurtain County, Oklahoma- 

Arapaho Women In Clean Uniforms Prepare Tomatoes 
For Canning In The Arapaho Cooperative Cannery 
On The Wind River Reservation In Wyoming. 


Oklahoma Seminole Women Quilting 

Group Of Blackfeet Women, Montana 


Sun-Drying Meat To Make Pemmican At The Home Of 
Mrs. Green Grass Bull, Blackfeet, Montana 

Crow Indian Women Doing .beacLworic, 
Crow Agency. Montana 


Mrs. Sippi , Well-Known San Carlos 
Apache, With A Young Mother 
And Her Twins 

Spinning Class At Sequoyah Train 
ing School In Oklahoma 

Women Of The Pueblo Plastering The Shop Built By 
The Schoolboys At Isleta Day School,' 
United Pueblos Agency, New Mexico 



"By Rene D 'Harnoncourt , 
General Manager , Indian Arts and Crafts Board* 

Indians - Indians of today and tomorrow, seen against a 
background of yesterday, will be presented as part of the Golden 
Gate International Exposition which will open in Sen Francisco this 
coming February. This presentation of the Indian past will give to 
the public, it is hoped, a new understanding of the proud Indian 
heritage, and will give the living Indian a chance to prove that he 
is today the keeper of values which, if they were better known, 
could be an important contribution to modern civilization and the 
means of his finding a better place in the contemporary world. 

To illustrate this purpose we give a brief account of 
plans for the exhibit: 

The Hall of Indian History . Here the visitor will find 
displays and animated pictorial charts showing in a dramatic way 
where the Indian came from and how he developed his various civili- 
zations. Large maps of the United States and Alaska will illustrate 
the generally little- known fact that there are at least six dis- 
tinct Indian civilizations within the territory of the United States; 
and that these civilizations have such outstanding individual char- 
acteristics that their differences are more well-defined in many 
ways than those of the European nations. The six civilizations are 
the Fishermen of the Northwest Coast, the Seed and Root Gatherers 
of California, the Hunters of the Great Plains, the Woodsmen of the 
East Coast, the Corn Planters of the Pueblos, and the Navajo Shep- 
herds. A large gallery will be devoted to each of these groups. We 
believe that a trip through the exhibit will reveal to the visitor 
the amazing variety and vitality of the arts and cultures of Indian 

The Hall of the Fishermen of the Northwest Coast . From 
the cold light of the Eskimo Hall the visitor will enter a large 
dark room suggesting the sombre interior of the Indian houses of 
southeastern Alaska. It is lit by a reddish glow from a fire pit 
in the center of the floor. The room is alive with things: blan- 
kets of mountain goat wool, carved and painted chests, masks, pad- 
dles, implements for fishing and for war. All loom out of the 
darkness in the firelight as they were once seen in their original 
setting. There is a magnificent consistency in all this Northwest 

• By request of Mr. George Creel, U. S. Commissioner for the San 
Francisco Exposition, the Indian Arts and Crafts Board has been des- 
ignated by the Secretary of the Interior to organize and install this 
exhibit as part of the Federal Government's participation in the fair 


Coast art. Everything in its design is alive; everything conforms 
to one great concept of man and nature. Spirits, men and animals 
are one powerful race, born and part of the dark coast woods of 
Alaska. The far wall of the room will he broken away, revealing 
the trunks of towering totem poles, and monumental grave sculpture 
in a diffused gray outdoor light. 

The Seed and Root Gatherers of California . Next the 
visitor will enter the California room. Here he will find a large 
relief map of the state, covered from the coast to the Sierras with 
a network of fine baskets. These baskets will be placed in the 
exact locale where they are now being made, and will show the amaz- 
ing variety and superb quality of an art that has developed further 
in California than in any other part of the country, and that gives 
the California Indians a i*lace. beside the great basket-makers of 
the world. 

The Hall of the Hunters of the Plains . The California 
room widens gradually as the visitor progresses, and opens into the 
large hall of the hunter of the Plains. Here the ceiling is high; 
exhibits are arranged in low cases; the light is bright - everything 
suggests space. A large mural of a buffalo hunt, painted by an In- 
dian artist, fills the main wall opposite the entrance - Plastic 
figures of hunters on foot and on horseback, their long, feather 
war bonnets and fringed garments actually in motion as though blown 
by the wind, are placed in such a way that they seem to be part of 
the mural. This mural is the keynote of the entire room, just as 
the Buffalo Hunt was the keynote of the Plains Indians' life. To 
gain his living, the hunter had to follow the buffalo herd over 
the great plains the year around, ana every object that he made was 
planned to fit into nomadic life. He invented a movable house (the 
tepee), movable furniture of willow twigs, and made everything of 
pliable deer or buffalo hide that can easily be folded and carried 
about. He even designed all his patterns so that they show at their 
best when seen in motion. The buffalo herds are gone, but the tradi- 
tional style born of the hunter's life still survives, as the con- 
temporary art shown in this hall will prove. 

The Hall of the Eastern Woodsmen . Prom the bright light 
of the Plains Hall, the visitor will enter the Hall of the Woodsmen 
of the East Coast. In this room, against the warm subdued back- 
ground of native materials - bark and skins, rushes and sweet grass - 
will be told the tragic history of the eastern woodsmen. These 
tribes proved that they were able to adapt themselves to the white 
man's ways, proved that they could become useful citizens in the white 
man's sense, and were none the less ruthlessly crushed. A series 
of documents will tell of the statecraft of the Six Nations in the 
north, and of the great achievement of an illiterate Cherokee silver- 


smith who invented a written language for his tribe: an achieve- 
ment that enabled the Cherokee to reach a high level of literacy, 
write a constitution, form a government, organize their economic 
and spiritual life, only to be driven out in the end and pushed in- 
to the wilderness because gold was discovered on their own land. 

The Hall of the Pueblo Corn Planters . In contrast with 
the East Coast tribes, the old Indian order survives today among 
the Pueblos almost without compromise. Corn is still the basis 
of Pueblo existence, and the circular Pueblo room will show how the 
whole economic and spiritual life of the Pueblos revolves around it. 
The room is divided into four sections corresponding to the four 
main phases of the corn cycle - sowing the corn in spring, the green 
corn in summer, the corn harvest in fall, and storage of the corn 
during the winter. Displays of pottery, weavings and basketry, and 
an Indian mural around the walls depicting ceremonial dances, will 
all be shown in their relationship to the corn cycle. 

The Hall of the Navajo . The last exhibition hall - that 
of the Navajo - shows the amazing power of a nomad group who took 
in lordly manner whatever seemed good to them of the work of their 
neighbors, and of the white man, to build up what is today one of 
the strongest and most vital Indian civilizations in the United 
States. In this hall the visitor will be led from displays that 
show the old Navajo blanket against its primitive setting of sky 
and mesa to a display of contemporary Navajo silverware that finds 
its perfect setting in a modern all-metal room. 

• • * * • 

Displays of smaller tribal groups not mentioned here will 
be scattered through the galleries, and all these exhibits will lead 
up to a presentation of the contemporary Indian. The halls will be 
laid out in horseshoe form around a courtyard where members of vari- 
ous tribes will display their wares for sale. Artists and artisans 
will be on hand to demonstrate and explain the various techniques 
of Indian handicrafts. Dozens of tribes, Indian cooperatives, In- 
dian arts and crafts clubs, are right now at work all over the 
United States preparing the craft work for this market. It is of 
the utmost importance that the tribes themselves have taken the 
responsibility of providing this market with the finest wares they 
know how to make. In connection with this market, we will also 
demonstrate that Indian art is not savage art. Model rooms will 
show how effectively fine Indian products blend with contemporary 
backgrounds, contributing new color and new forms to any modern home. 


No presentation of the American Indian is complete with- 
out his dances. Dancing and chanting are part of all his social 
and ceremonial activities, and represent possibly the purest ex- 
pression of his civilization. The variations between Indian cul- 
tures become just as apparent in their dances as in their arts 
and crafts. 

An extensive program of dances is therefore being pre- 
pared that will supplement and accentuate the picture of Indian 
life and culture which this exhibit aims to present to the public. 


Will Be Replaced By W. Barton Greenwood , Jr. 

Samuel M. Dodd, chief budget officer in the Indian Serv- 
ice, has left the Service for a post in the Bureau of tne Budget. 
In his letter of resignation to Mr. Collier, Mr. Dodd said: 

"I leave the Indian Service with many regrets. I entered 
it as. a stenographer in Oklahoma in 1916, and transferred to the 
Washington Office on April 1, 1917. During this more than 22 years' 
association with the problems of the Indian Service I have become 
convinced that there is no agency of the Federal Government which 
presents more interesting or challenging problems- I am happy to 
have had an intimate association with these problems for the great- 
er portion of my employment in the Service." 

Commissioner Collier replied: 

"Yours of September 24. And the day after tomorrow is 
your last day over here I I believe you already know what our feel- 
ings are. Not only to me, but to the whole office have you been 
" the shadow of a great rock in a weary land. H I do not expect 
ever to be able to fully replace you. Your choice is the right one, 
and our view must be that service to the government is more impor- 
tant than service to any one bureau or department, no matter how 
much we may care about our particular bureau. We are compensated 
by the fact that you really will not be moving out of our field but 
rather into a wider field which includes ours, so that the contact 
with you really will not be interrupted. Mr. Zimmerman, I know, 
would join in all I am saying." 

Because of his experience in fiscal and budget matters, W. 
Barton Greenwood, Jr., who has been serving as Chief of the Fiscal Di- 
vision at Washington, has been selected to fill Mr. Dodd's place. 



By Erik W. Allstrom, Enrollee Program Supervisor 
CCC - Indian Division 

May first, and the last of the Papago Reservation "char- 
cos" was about dry. A couple of calves slopped around in the 
thick, soupy liquid, which was cooling, even though it could not 
he drunk. In the thin shade of the parched mesquite trees a few 
scrawny cows suckled their calves while they themselves wobbled 
on weak, uncertain legs. With the water gone, the end was not 
far off, even though the supply of dried-up grass was still suf- 
ficient for some time, perhaps until the July rains. 

Fifteen miles away across the blistering Arizona desert, 
a fifty-thousand-gallon tank ran full from a deep well, both in- 
stalled by the Indian Division of the CCC Here no cattle at all 
could be found, because last winter's rains had been so scant that 
little spring grass had come. There were no general rains over the 
area- There were not* enough wells driven to supply permanent wa- 
ter where there was grass, though there was plentiful grass near 
many of the charcos. 

"Charco" is the Spanish word for "puddle", and around 
some of these, long dried-up, were carcasses of fine quality Here- 
ford cattle. When the charcos dried up, the cattle had not the 
strength sufficient to walk to the permanent water supply and back 
to the grass. So they died in their tracks. 

An idea came into being. Why not develop a cooperative 
agreement with the Pimas, a hundred miles to the north? The Pimas 


grow alfalfa on 
lands irrigated 
from the Gila 
River Froject , 
but have no cat- 
tle. Congress 
had authorized 
that there be de- 
veloped some forty 
thousand acres of 
land along the 
lower Gila River, 
much of which has 
been planted to 
alfalfa. If only 

the dying cattle from the Papago Reservation could get to the fine 
Pima feed and water, it might be possible to benefit both tribes 

The agreement was made. Grazing charges ran from three to 
to six cents a day per animal, according to size and condition, to 
be paid after the sale of the fattened animals- The animals were 
transported by truck to the Pima Agency. A number of the weakest 
died on the way, but more than three hundred reached the pastures, 
and headed straight for the water in the irrigation ditches. For 
fully ten days some of them stayed in the ditch, foraging only on 
the alfalfa on the banks that could be reached from the water. They 
had never in their lives before seen so much water. 

After a month the younger cattle had made a most remark- 
able comeback. They were sleek, but not fat. . In two months only 
the older animals were still thin enough to count their ribs. While 
they were not prime, most of the lot were ready for sale. 

This experiment has been a demonstration of the value of 
range-feeding cattle until the spring forage and water is about 
gone, then transferring them to irrigated pasture for fattening 
before sale. It marked another step toward cooperative cattle 
production by Indians. 



The photograph on the cover shows the wheat harvest in the 
Flathead country, Montana. 



The care of 
homeless Indian chil- 
dren, who have "been 
orphaned or whose par- 
ents are unable to care 
for them, is one of the 
recurring problems of 
the Indian Service. Es- 
pecially is it a pro.b- 
lem in the case of 
children too young to 
be sent to boarding 
schools. Foster home 
placement gives a 
chance for a normal 
and happy home life. 
In Oklahoma, an arrange- 
ment has been worked out 
through which the Indian 
Service cooperates with 
the state in the care 
of these children. The cost is being met from state funds, and the 
preliminary study and follow-up work necessary to place children 
wisely is being arranged cooperatively between the Indian Service 
and the Child Welfare Division of the Oklahoma State Department of 
Public Welfare. 

The method of placing children is this: 

Children thought to be in need of home care are reported 
to the superintendent - perhaps through a neighbor, or an employee. 
The need is studied by the Indian Service social worker, education- 
al field agent, or other available worker, and a full report is 
made, through the superintendent, to the State Child Welfare Divi- 
sion. This division checks the need and works out plans for the 
care of the child. 

The Indian Service personnel have prepared a list of el- 
igible homes for these needy children. Homes suggested are inspected 
by members of the State Child Welfare Division, and those found sat- 
isfactory are approved as boarding homes. In some parts of Oklahoma, 
especially in the east where many Indian families live on scanty in- 
comes in extremely poor houses, it has been difficult to find f ami- 

Gilbert and Chester Pope, Choctaws , 
Who Live With Mr. and Mrs. Cantrell 
At The Indian Resettlement Project 
At Wilburton, Oklahoma. Their Pet 
Pigs Are Shown In The Foreground. 


lies whose housing conditions are acceptable, even though the pro- 
posed foster parents want the children «nd would do their best to 
care for them. New houses built under Resettlement projects, such 
as those at Wilburton and Colony, Oklahoma, have made improved 
housing facilities possible for a number of Indian families, sever- 
al of whom have been accepted as meeting requirements for the care 
of foster children. 

Approximately fifteen children have been placed with 
families living in homes built under new housing projects. Broth- 
ers and sisters are kept together as far as possible. The super- 
vision of the children in foster homes is the responsibility of 
the Indian Service social worker; the cost of home care is paid by 
the state. One social worker reports that a new community of this 
type furnishes "an ideal background for these Indian children. They 
have the advantage of Indian community life; they have space, fresh 
air, comfortable homes, and can enjoy real farm life. When they 
reach school age they can attend the local public school with oth- 
er children in the community. The houses have four rooms; there- 
fore the children, as a rule, can have a sleeping room of their 
own. They are fed at a minimum expense from the farm produce 
raised by the foster parents on their local farms. The money paid 
for the care of the children is a valuable aid to the new settlers, 
who need surplus cash to supplement their farm incomes during the 
early developmental stages of the project." 



Mark L. Burns-, Superintendent of the Consolidated Chip- 
pewa Agency in Minnesota, was presented with the Indian Achievement 
Medal for 1938, sponsored by the Indian Council Fire at its annual 
American Indian Day observances on Friday, September 23, at 32 West 
Randolph Street in Chicago. The presentation was made by H. E. 
Wilkes, Choctaw, president of the Organization. 

A majority vote of the Award Committee conferred this 
distinction on Mr. Burns. 

The Reverend Philip F. Gordon, Chippewa, journeyed from 
Centuria, Wisconsin, for the occasion, and was the principal speak- 
er. Frank Smart, also a Chippewa, came from Odanah, and presided 
at the opening ceremony. Scott H. Peters, Assistant Indian Employ- 
ment Agency, a Chippewa, came from Milwaukee, as did Lewis Marks- 
man, from Odanah, and there were many Chippewa residents of Chicago 
in the audience. 



By Philip Olney, Secretary, Tribal Credit Committee, 

Yakima, Washington 

Credit Committee Inspecting Team Purchased By Jason 
Sam And Discussing With Him His Farming Plans 

In the early part of 1937, $25,000 was set aside from 
Yakima tribal funds to be used by the Yakima Indians for loans of 
various kinds, especially for the purchase of farm equipment, seed, 
livestock, etc. At first the council decided to act as a loan 
committee itself; later, however, on the advice of the Indian Of- 
fice, the council set up a committee of three to take the responsi- 
bility for this work. Moses Sampson, Frank Totus and Philip Olney 
were chosen as members of the Yakima Tribal Credit Committee. 

At its first meeting last December, 22 loans were con- 
sidered; loan applications continued to come in during the spring, 
on which the committee acted promptly. 

After the loans were out, the Committee felt it wise to 
check up on the use of the money lent. Together with Superintendent 
M. A. Johnson, Mr. W. S. Murdock, our extension agent and Mr. R. E. 
Hanson, Farmer,' accompanied by Mr. Ralph S. Bristol, Supervisor of 
Extension Work, we made a tour of inspection to homes of Indians to 
whom loans had been made. Here are a few examples of what we found. 
We have been careful not to pick just the best ones, but to give a 
real picture . 


With his loan of $500, Jason Sam had purchased a team of 
horses, a mowing machine, plow, harness, disc and forty dollars' 
worth of seed grain. His crops were growing nicely and we felt 
that he seemed genuinely interested in developing his place as well 
as possible. 

Some of the places visited were "being run "by Indian women. 
Alice Shuman Colwash, for example, had received a loan of $350 for 
drilling a well. At the time of the committee's visit, the well 
had been drilled and was operating satisfactorily. 

We next visited a farmer who had "been granted a $205 loan 
with which he had purchased harness, seed and poultry. He was not 
at home, hut his crops were planted end were making a good growth. 
However, we had reports that he had been drunk on several occasions 
and it was decided to withhold the balance of the loan pending an 
investigation of his conduct by the superintendent. 

The home of Michael George was visited, who had been 
granted a loan of $350 for the purchase of a team, harness and seed 
grain. His crops were growing well and one of his team of mares 
had a colt. 

At our next stop, the borrower had arranged a loan of $380 
for the purchase of a team and mowing machine. He was not at home 
and we were advised that he had been spending practically all spring 
on the range conducting a wild horse round-up. A Japanese was oper- 
ating his place, apparently on some sort of share-crop basis. The 
committee recommended that the entire loan be held up until such 
time that the borrower could appear before the committee at one of 
its regular meetings -and make a full report as to just how his place 
was being operated. 

The next place visited was that of Seepum Emeunot, who had 
a loan of $405 approved to purchase a team and a plow. Moses Samp- 
son advised that this lady, although old, was a hard worker, and we 
felt that she would undoubtedly be able to make a success of her 

The last place visited was that of Thomas and Isaac Albert, 
who had secured a loan of $425 for the construction of a home. It 
was found that they had arranged to purchase a small home from the 
local school district and move it on to their place at a total cost 
of $410. It was a very nice four-room house and the committee felt 
satisfied. with the arrangement. 


Joe Chavely And The Yakima Tribal Credit Committee 

A total of 38 homes were visited during the two days of 
the tour. We felt that the trip was very much worth while in giving 
us an insight into the loan program- 
Speaking from our experience so far, I would say that as a 
whole, the use of the loans was very good. Also, I "believe that the 
credit committee has worked in general to the satisfaction of the 
tribe. The appointment of so small a committee was looked upon with 
some skepticism at first, and some members felt that it was a bad 
move to entrust such a large sum of money to only three members. In- 
deed, we had many serious discussions among ourselves and with the su- 
perintendent, and our first decisions were somewhat backward for fear 
that we might overstep. As the work has gone on, however, we have 
become more familiar with our duties and we have met with no criticisms 
from the council or from the tribe as a whole, so far. We have worked 
in harmony with Superintendent Johnson, to whom we owe thanks for 
his advice, # and also with others of the agency staff • 


Robert Higheagle, well-known Sioux leader at Standing 
Rock Reservation in North Dakota, died September 21 at the Agency 
hospital at the age of 65 . During his long and varied career, High 
eagle had been a teacher, an interpreter, and an Indian judge. 

From the Sioux County Pioneer Arrow . 



By Harold Smith, CCC-ID Foreman In-Charge 
Western Shoshone Agency, Nevada 

The Spraying Is Done With Metal Barrier Traps In Which 

Hand-Propelled Spray Guns. Crickets Are Caught And Burned. 

There are 2,000 bushels less of mormon crickets this 
year on the Western Shoshone Reservation in Nevada. 

The CCC-ID Indian Division and the U. S. Biological Sur- 
vey together worked out a cooperative project to eradicate this 
pest, and, beginning in May, fifteen hundred acres of reservation 
land were treated with hand-sprays (see photograph above). Sixteen 
local Indian girls formed the crew- Two thousand bushels of the 
crickets were scooped up and burned in metal traps. 

Mr. Herbert Holly, himself a local Indian, was CCC-ID 
leader on this project- Both he and the U. S. Biological Survey 
representative testify as to the capable handling of their jobs 
by this crew of girls. 





Through the courtesy of a reader, Mrs. Ina Sizer Cassidy, 
who is State Director of the Writers 1 Project of the Works Progress 
Administration in New Mexico, we reprint a Pueblo document more 
than a hundred years old - Archive 1367, dated October 11, 1821. In 
it, the Indians of San Juan Pueblo petition Commander General Garcia 
Conde to remedy various oppressive conditions. A marginal note in- 
dicates that the petition was granted and orders that the acting 
Governor of New Mexico shall see that the Indians' wishes are com- 
plied with. 

The document was translated by J. M. Martinez and edited 
by Claribel Fischer Walker. The petition follows: 

We, the inhabitants ("Hijos" : literally sons or natives) 
of the Pueblo of San Juan de los Caballeros, with the greatest sub- 
mission and respect due your Excellency, have come to appeal to 
your merciful heart and upright justice concerning a proclamation 
which has been read to us which states that the lands of the pueblos 
should be decreased. We are among these and the land we own is so 
little that it does not make a league in any direction, for thus it 
was ordered by the ancient kings and we have been obeying it because 
we have been such loyal subjects, more so than the other pueblos 
who won a full league. For that reason he (the King) made us " Cab- 
alleros" (knights or gentlemen) rather than those of the other 
pueblos, for the other pueblos were subdued by force of war and we 
(submitted) of our own volition, for which action the King designed 
to bestow upon \is this boon (literally, these merits). 

Hearing the order of reduction we appeal to your Excel- 
lency, as you are second in authority to the King. From another di- 
rection, another encumbrance has been added to us for the last year, 
which is, that we have to pay the first fruits of the harvest (primi- 
cia), not only the farmers, but even the widows who are in distress, 
who have become residents in order to have aid and help in their 
maintenance, and who have been removed by Father Sanchez. That how- 
ever, we consider because the Father is very avaricious. 

We have recently returned from Durango from the tribunal 
of the Epclesiastical Judge who has seen fit to decree that they 
remove it for us and to remedy other injuries prejudicial to us 
that come under his jurisdiction, and to show your Excellency those 


which appertain to you to remedy if you should find it advisable. 
For that reason we make known to you the thing that is oppressing 
us, and (from which) the King in his decrees protects us. 

We also want to make known to you that the Temple was 
paid for "by us from the foundation to the roof, as were the vest- 
ments, sacred vessels, hells and the rest of the things needed to 
celebrate mass; and with all of these just rights, for the last 
year our dead have been buried outside the church. This is only 
done to those who have no means and those that are wealthy are 
buried inside. Whence is it decreed that he who is poor shall 
cease to love the Temple? Because we all built it together and 
following that idea the Union will ©nd. The cemetery has been 
frozen for six months and cannot be dug and when it can be, he who 
is buried outside will be ill-judged. We seek religion, unity and 
tranquility, wherefore may your Excellency decide whatever is proper. 
Now therefore: 

We humbly ask your Excellency to heed our petition, in 
which we shall receive mercy and justice. 

At the feet of your Excellency, 

Jose Manuel Archuleta, Alcalde 
Juan Lujan 

Juan Pedro Archuleta, Captain of War, 

Antonio Cata, General 

Santiago Ortiz 

Juan Isidro Chavarria 

* * 

The de- 
sign at the left 
is from a collec- 
tion of Tjlock lin- 
oleum prints cut 
by the pupils of 
the Federal Indian 
School at Hydaburg, 
Alaska. The de- 
signs represent a 
c on ven t i onal i zat i on 
of animals signi- 
ficant in their 
tribal symbolism. 
Note the repeti- 
tion of the eye 
form in many por- 
tions of the de- 



By John P. Harrington, Smithsonian Institution 

( Note ; This is the concluding part of an article on the American 
Indian sign language. The preceding parts have appeared in the 
issues of March, July, August, and September 1938.) 

Augmenting The Scott Material On Signs: 
Richard Sanderville, John G-. Carter, 
And Paul D. Hellyer At The Smithsonian 
In Washington. (See Page 28.) 
(Photo Through Courtesy of Paul D. Hellyer 

Footprints In Cement 

A Brief Culmination To A Long-Held Plan 

It has been related in the Sep- 
tember issue how Major-General Hugh L. 
Scott, then almost eighty, got a bill 
through Congress for motion filming the 
American Indian sign language and con- 
vened at Browning, Montana, a council of 
fourteen Indian sign-users representing 
nearly as many northern tribes of the 
Western Plains Area. Three and a half 
days of actual and active photography 
marked the brief culmination of half a 
lifetime of dreaming of being the first 
to film signs, and of months of active 
participation in politics, interviewing, 
and letter -writing in direct arrangement 
for the council. 

Richard Sanderville, Blackfeet interpreter, 
proposed at the Browning Council that cement blocks 
be prepared for making footprints of the council 
members, and that thus a record be started toward a 
permanent memorial of the occasion. Board molds of 
about twenty inches square were built for casting 
some fifteen blocks of cement. It was insisted that 
the feet be bare, except in the case of General 
Scott, who was allowed to stand on his cement block 
with military hobnailed shoes on. Bitter -root Jim 
was the first to mount a block, where he remained 
for a long time perched, like a dignified rooster 
about to crow, while the cement was hardening 
about his toes. The blocks are now stored in the 

Bitter-root Jim, Flathead 
Medicine Man, Member Of The 
Blackfeet Sign Council. 


Participants' Footprints Recorded In Cement At The 
Sign Council At Browning, Montana. 

basement of the Blackfeet Agency office.* 

It is hoped by Mr. Sandervllle to commemorate the council by placing these 
footprint blocks in a circle to mark the exact site of the council tip! and the def- 
inite placement which each occupied in the tribal circle. The plan includes the 
setting up of a small circle of stones at the center of the commemoration circle to 
mark the location of the fireplace, while sticks of petrified wood would be used to 
imitate the fire. Mr. Sandervllle has kindly drawn for me a round plan of the pro- 
posed monument with tribal seats indicated, and a copy of his diagram is reproduced 
on the page following. 

Introduction . Translations And Explanations Added Is gUeqt ZilS 

Sound recording was still in its comparative infancy even in 1930. The two 
reels taken at Browning, comprising 1,841 feet, were not accompanied by any sound re- 
cording, and in fact, no sound equipment was taken to Browning, the idea having been 
from the first to have the sound added by General Scott at some later time. A sound 
introduction was, of course, also lacking. 

* I was curious to know whether the much more famous collection of foot- 
prints - that of motion-picture celebrities in the forecourt of Grauman's Chinese 
Theater in Hollywood, California - or the sign council footprints, came first. I am 
informed by correspondence with Mr. Sid Grauman himself, manager of the theater, that 
about ten days before the theater's opening in May 1927, the idea for such a collec- 
tion came to him, just as the cement was hardening. He rushed to a studio and per- 
suaded three prominent actor friends - Douglas Fairbanks. Mary Pickford, and Norma 
Talmadge - to come to the theater and make their handprints, footprints, and signa- 
tures in the stiffening cement. Thus this famous collection, now representing about 
fifty celebrities, did, in fact, antedate the sign council footprint record. 


General Scott spent the winter of 1930-31 in Washington, D. C, working on 
the sign language film, and his first task was to add the introduction, translations 
and explanations in English to the two silent reels of the sign council which, aside 
from some still photographs, were the only photographic results of the work at Brown- 
ing. .The addition of sound was accomplished "by recording the voice of General Scott 
on a "soundtrack", a blank film which was run entirely separate from the projection 
of the Browning films for recording the introduction, but which, for the translations 
and explanations, was run simultaneously with the projection of the council film, a 
print of the track thus prepared being added later in the laboratory to the left side 
of duplicate negatives of the Browning films. 

I must add here that General Scott's voice was not considered ideal by ex- 
perts for recording. Because of his age, his breathing was heavy and his voice weak; 
at times he faltered. The sound recording could be very much improved. Mr. Raymond 
Evans tells me that he has considered replacing the Scott sound recording with a su- 
perior voice. Certain sequences, as for instance the Bitter-root Jim story, should 
have General Scott's voice replaced to make the story conform to the corrections of 
Mr. Sanderville. 

Custody QX The Material 

In sum, the sign language filming consisted of two reels taken at Browning 
at the sign council, to which General Scott's voice was added later in Washington; 
and six reels of silent film dictionary made by General Scott in Washington. What 

The Browning and Washington, D.C 
films on the sign language were, of course, 
at first in the custody of the Office of 
Motion Fictures of the Department of Ag- 
riculture, which did the photography. 
They were transmitted to the Office of 
Indian Affairs of the Department of 
the Interior in April 1932, and from 
there they were sent for safe-keep- 
ing to the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion in March 1934, where they 
:T have remained. General Scott's 

own set is in the possession of hie 
widow at Princeton, New Jersey. 
There is also a print of the reels in 
the custody of the Division of Motion 
Pictures, Department of the Interior, 
in whose film vault the reels are stored. 

The only copy made outside of 
the Government was made by the Boy Scouts 
of America, for education work, in 1934, 
at a cost of about $100. 


A Sign 71 lm Dictionary Jj Partially Completed Br General SCQtt 

It was General Scott's intention not only 
to add sound to the Browning films, but also to pro- 
duce a, sign language film dictionary, also called a 
sign language cinematic dictionary, of thirteen hun- 
dred signs of his own gesturing. Unlike the addi- 
tion of tne soundtrack, which was completed, the 
film dictionary was never completed, tort was dropped 
because of lack of funds and because General Scott 
was pressed by other matters. Something less than 
four hundred signs, or only three- tenths of the to- 
tal contemplated, were produced. 

The famous chair used by Secretary of Ag- 
riculture James Wilson for sixteen years under Pres- 
idents McKinley, Taf t , and Roosevelt was trundled 
out at the old studio for General Scott to sit in 
while he made the signs for the film dictionary. 

In making the sign dictionary, each sign was led off by a title, and an av- 
erage of fifteen or twenty feet of film followed to show the making of the sign. The 
entire section of the dictionary which was completed comprises six reels - 4,754 feet. 
Less than four hundred signs are shown at all. This film was not accompanied by a 

The film dictionary was classified according to subjects as, for example, 
birds, plants, etc. Only under these groupings is the alphabetic order used. The 
most valuable signs, perhaps, are those referring to place names. Among amusing 
signs we may mention those referring to the Negro as a black white man, and to the 
monkey as a long-tailed white man. 

General Scott Dies Before Completion Q£ Work 

Becoming aware that because of the depression it would be difficult to get 
a second appropriation bill through Congress, General Scott appealed to the Smithson- 
ian Institution for aid in completing his film dictionary. He made the proposition 
that he would, himself, gratis, supervise the production, that his son would do the 
camera work, also without compensation, and the only expense necessary would be the 
purchase of the blank film. No action was taken and General Scott died soon after, 
at the Walter Reed Hospital in Washington on April 30, 1934. 

Richard Sanderville Adds To Scott Material 

Soon after the death of the General, the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
Smithsonian Institution, under the direction of its chief, Mr. M. W. Stirling, took 
up the matter of continuing work on the film dictionary. It was arranged to bring 
Richard Sanderville, well-known Blackfeet guide, interpreter, and member of the sign 
council, to Washington, D. C, to check on and augment the Scott material* It has 
been stated that General Scott had proclaimed Mr . Sanderville as the man who first 
taught him the sign language. This is probably an error, although the General un- 
doubtedly learned much from Sanderville. 

Mr. Sanderville started work in Washington, D. C, at the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution in June 26, 1934, just two months after the death of General Scott. The work 
in Washington was placed by Mr . M. W. Stirling under the immediate supervision of Mr. 


The Drawing Above Shows The Three Sign Council Tipis Erected About 250 
Yards South And A Little West Of The Blackfeet Agency Office At Willow 
Creek, In The Government Square, In Fall Of 1930. The Large Central 
Tipi Was Used For The Sign Council Meetings. The Indian Sign Council 
Members Are Depicted Standing In Front Of The Tipis. 

John G. Carter, long an expert in Blackfeet ethnology, and of Mr. Anthony W. Wilding 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Mr. Paul D. Hellyer was the photographer (see 
the illustration on page 24). 

Before Mr. Sanderville arrived in Washington, the Scott card catalog of 
1,725 cards of the sign language was obtained from Mrs. Scott. Because of scanty 
funds, it was decided not to make regular projectable motion-picture film of the 
signs, but to take only the high spots, as it were, of each gesture sign by turning 
the motion picture camera with extraordinary slowness. This is known to technicians 
as still photography with a motion picture camera. One complete revolution of the 
crank turns the reel to a new frame . 

On the lawn near the Smithsonian Building a blackboard was set up for the 
writing of sign titles, and Mr. Sanderville was seated in a chair before it. The 
wording of the sign was written on the blackboard, and the sign was then enacted by 
Mr. Sanderville, while Mr. Hellyer slowly fed the film through the camera. Such a 
record cannot be projected, but serves all purposes for study and preservation. 

The Scott cards above referred to were made the basis for this work, al- 
though the Scott film dictionary was also projected for Mr. Sanderville 1 s study while 
he was in Washington, and was corrected by him through the method of making annota- 
tions on it. Of the 1,725 Scott cards examined (and they were evidently the same 
ones which Mr. Milburn L. Wilson found the General looking at in 1919, as related in 
the September issue), 935 cards were rejected as being obsolete, undecipherable, of 
purely local interest, or as already being contained in General Scott's film diction- 

The balance, consisting of 790 cards, were furnished with film frames re- 
cording the exact progressive making, and Mr. Sanderville furnished ten additional 
signs. Mr. Sanderville also furnished, recorded in the same way, three texts: an 


Interior View Of The Central Tipi Showing The Sign Council In Session. 
General Scott Is Seen Occupying The Seat Of Honor, Which Is The West- 
ernmost Seat, Straight Opposite The Eastern Door, And Which Always Has 
A Buffalo Skull Planted In Front Of It. The Usual Circle Of 
Stones Is Seen Around The Central Fire. 

Indian love story; buffalo hunt; and the story of the transfer of the painted lodges. 
He worked June 26, 1934 to July 11, 1934, inclusive, finishing meticulously the task 
to which he was assigned. 

General Scott Never Finished His Filming Of The Sign Language And Never Published It 

General Scott did not finish, and never published, his work. It is, how- 
ever, a consolation to consider that his film recording was in part realized, that he 
fulfilled his dream of being the first to do this, and that the Government has on 
file copious film records of the American Indian sign language for posterity. Gener- 
al Scott's brother, Professor W. B. Scott of the Department of Geology, Princeton TT- 
niversity, writes me: "It was a great disappointment to us all that my brother was 
never able to finish his planned work on the Indian sign language." 

General Scott 1 s Widow Sends Material June 1938 

Manuscript and early photograph material of great interest was sent to the 
Bureau of American Ethnology by Mrs. Scott in June 1938 (see, for instance, the illus- 
tration of General Scott and Buffalo Bill in the September issue). The material de- 
livered in June 1938 contained, however, no films or other data on the sign language. 

* * * * * 

The Sign Language Still Of Value To Whites And Indians Alike 

So our material on that marvelous inheritance, the American Indian sign lan- 
guage, ends. Before concluding, I want to make an observation: it is not dead, al- 
though the number of its users has declined. It is rich and vivid: it is full of col- 
or and pithy expressiveness. In the American Indian sign language I see possibilities 
of direct help to English style and of inherent psychological values secondary to none. 



The following two items are "both from the Carson City 
(Nevada) Chronicle of September 16. 

The Indian CCC 

Whenever the Civilian Conservation Corps is mentioned it 
is the natural assumption that the enrollees are necessarily white 
youths. Such is not the case, however, as the CCC has an estimated 
30,000 Indian enrollees who have made an enviable record in the few 
years the vast civilian army has been in existence. 

You don't have to look beyond Nevada to see what the In- 
dian CCC has done, because right in our own state are evidences of 
developments accomplished by the Indian youths. 

The Indian boys are being trained to make better livingt. 
and become better citizens. The path to future independence lies 
in the training they receive, and that is where the CCC comes in. 
In the few short years the Corps has been operating, Nevada Indian 
enrollees have, among other things, constructed enough fence to 
run from Carson City to Elko, planted hundreds of trees, reseeded 
desert lands with pasture grasses and developed water on desert 
wastes. To the average white enrollee the CCC means just another 
job, but to the Indian it is his go-ahead signal for security in 
later life. He learns while he works and he works all the harder 
because he feels the land is his own • 

An example of the work being done by the Indian CCC is 
their motorized camp, consisting of ten fully-equipped trailers. 
Believed to be the first of its kind in the United States, the 
Nevada Indian CCC devised the scheme whereby camps could be movable 
instead of tearing them down and reconstructing them at another lo- 
cation, as was the former practice. The portable camp, with its 
trailers, has the most modern equipment, including even a radio sta- 

The Indian Division of the Civilian Conservation Corps 
has more than justified its existence. 

P ortable Camp Of CCC To Pass Through City 

The new, up-to-date motorized equipment of the Indian Di- 
vision of the Civilian Conservation Corps, under construction for 


several months is scheduled to pass through Carson Monday en route 
to Summit Lake in Humboldt County. 

Ten modern trailers, pulled by trucks, will form the van- 
guard of the procession. In addition, there are a number of pick- 
up trucks, an ambulance and private cars for the supervisory per- 
sonnel . 

The motorized equipment is the first portable CCC camp 
in the United States, and it is believed that similar units will 
be placed into operation in the near future. 

Approximately thirty Indian enrollees comprise the camp, 
which will move from place to place at the conclusion of their 
work. Included in the camp are sleeping cars, complete kitchen and 
dining cars, an ice house, an office, which has a radio station, 
and shower baths • 

The project was supervised by Frank Parcher , a project 
manager in the Indian Division of the CCC A Carson City boy, Jay 
Robinson, Jr., was the carpenter-foreman for the job and aided in 
the construction of the unique equipment. Willis Rowe is in charge 
of the can?) and is assisted by William Joaquin, Jr. 

* * * * • 


On September 14, by order of the Acting Secretary of the 
Interior, and under authority of Section 3 of the Indian Reorganiza- 
tion Act, approximately 200,000 acres of land were restored to the 
Southern Ute Reservation in Colorado. Colorado members of Congress 
have voiced approval of this specific restoration. This land, for- 
merly a part of the reservation, is what remains of an area of nearly 
15,000,000 acres ceded to the Government in 1874 and 1880 and opened 
to homestead entry. The 200,000 acres, still undisposed of after be- 
ing opened to homestead entry for 33 years, was urgently needed for 
grazing land by the Utes; and since they had accepted the Indian Re- 
organization Act it was possible to restore the remaining area to the 
Ute Reservation. By the terms of Public No. 574, passed by the last 
Congress, an area of some 4,000,000 acres, then also undisposed of, 
cannot be restored to Indian use, but is being administered under the 
Taylor Grazing Act. 

Existing lands of the Southern Utes had been seriously 
damaged by overgrazing. Restoration of this 200,000 acres, however, 
will make it possible to ease pressure on their damaged range and even- 
tually to build up the Utes' livestock industry to a scale which will 
make self-support possible for these Indians. 




By W. J. Enbom, Production Supervisor, CCC-ID 
Jicarilla Agency, Dulce, New Mexico. 

When Emergency Conservation Work was first started on 
the Jicarilla Reservation back in 1933 it was looked upon "by the 
members of the tribe as a means of earning forty-five dollars per 
month. During the five years since 1933 these same men have come 
to realize that the aims of "Washington" go much deeper than mere- 
ly providing work and the issuing of pay checks. 

There has' been a new consciousness born here of the ne- 
cessity of preservation of the reservation's natural resources. The 
foundation laid during the last four or five years may be likened 
to a period of trail blazing which makes possible greater accom- 
plishments in the future. There are today dozens of Apaches who 
are capable of taking charge of improvement projects, such as 
fence building, bridge and truck trail construction, reservoir 
construction and range improvements. 

Unmistakable signs of progress are shown by the whole- 
hearted acceptance of self-government, the establishing of a co- 
operative store, the willingness to carry out a well-balanced live- 
stock and range program and the general acceptance of conservation 
policies. The physical improvements on the reservation have been 
remarkable. But the quickening understanding of progressive poli- 
cies and the realization by Apaches that the Jicarilla people are 
an integral part of the United States and its problems are even 
more gratifying signs of Apache progress. 


At the Navajo Tribal Council elections, held September 
24, J. C Morgan won a clear majority for the post of council 
chairman with 7,927 votes, and Howard Gorman the post of vice- 
chairman. In eleven communities it will be necessary to hold a 
second election since none of the candidates for the post of del- 
egate received a majority. This second election, which has been 
called for October 22, will not, however, affect the choice of 
chairman and vice-chairman. 




Chee Dodge, venerable Navajo stockman, and a past chair- 
man of the Navajo Tribal Council, sent recently to Commissioner 
Collier an earnest and thoughtful letter in which he raised various 
questions as to the problem of the Navajos 1 future. Commissioner 
Collier's answer is quoted below: 


September 8, 1938. 

Dear Mr . Dodge : 

In your letter of August 30, you raise a question of 
vital importance. You ask how Secretary Ickes and I will meet the 
problem of enabling the Navajos to make the right kind of a living 
during the period when the livestock of the Navajos is adjusted to 
the carrying capacity of the Navajo range - 560,000 sheep units. 
It is a good question. It has been before us ever since 1933. At 
that time it was believed that the adjustment of the Navajos' live- 
stock to the carrying capacity could be accomplished in three years 
and that the vast expenditures contemplated by the Government for 
range improvement, water development, road building, erosion con- 
trol et cetera, would more than make up the temporary decrease in 
income from livestock during the adjustment period. 

That was five years ago. Since 1934 there has been no re 
duction in the number of the Navajos' sheep. There has been no re- 
duction in the number of cattle and practically none in the number 
of horses. The total livestock on the reservation, including at 
least 40,000 worthless horses, is still above a million sheep units 
Yet during these five years the Government has continued to spend 
very large sums for water development, for irrigation projects, for 
range improvements and erosion control. The bulk of these expendi- 
tures went to the Navajos in the form of wage payments. As a re- 
sult, the Navajos as a whole are better off, have a higher standard 
of living, have a larger income than they ever had before, yet they 
have not lived up to their part of the 1933 agreement. They have 
received the benefits from the Government, but they have failed to 
do the sensible thing and get rid of their unproductive stock, in- 
cluding the 40,000 excess, useless and wholly unproductive horses. 


You are a wise man. You have the "best interests of your 
people at heart. You also have shown great skill in the handling 
of your livestock, enough skill so that you were able to accumulate 
material wealth far above that which the average Navajo family owns. 
You have taken good care of the Navajo range which you claimed for 
your use- You have not overstocked this range as a whole. Your 
sheep produce more wool; your ewes produce more and larger lambs 
than the Navajo sheep crowded into the range which you and your 
family do not claim for your own flocks. I know that you do not 
allow a thousand half -starved horses for which you have no use what- 
ever, which serve no purpose and produce no income, to eat and tram- 
ple the grass on the Navajo range you control. You are too good a 
sheepman to allow that. Because you do not allow these useless 
horses on the range you control, because you cull your flocks, be- 
cause you do not heavily overcrowd the range, you have better sheep, 
more wool, more and bigger lambs than the average Navajo. I am sure 
that you get more wool, mutton and lambs per 1,000 acres of your 
correctly stocked range than the Navajo sheepman who crowds many 
more sheep and horses on 1,000 overgrazed acres- 

You have been very successful in the livestock business. 
But could you have made a success if you had given a part of your 
range to 600-pound horses you did not ride, eat or sell? Or if 
you had kept all the barren ewes, the old wethers, the sun-baked 
lambs, the poor rams, the ten-year-old tou$i, lean, stringy steers? 
Of course, you could not have attained the commercial success that 
is yours. 

Now the Government is asking the Navajos to follow the 
footsteps of you, their leader. The Government requires of the 
Navajos the same things that it is requiring the white stockmen to 
do, to handle the range in such a manner that it will not be de- 
stroyed. Already through the beginning of the enforcement of the 
grazing regulations under the Taylor Grazing Act, the white stock- 
men of the West have had to sell and remove from the range more 
than a million sheep. 

What the Government is asking the Navajos now is to dis- 
pose of those wild horses for which they have no practical use what- 
ever. There are probably 40,000 of them. Your people do not ride 
or work these excess horses; they do not use the meat or the hides. 
Yet these horses eat and destroy enough of the forage and browse 
to support 200,000 sheep. 

I know that you, a wise man and a good business man, will 
agree with the Government that these excess useless horses not 
needed by the Navajos should be disposed of for whatever they will 
bring to the end that the feed they now consume may be available 


for productive sheep. You will also agree, I am certain, that the 
removal of these excess horses will increase the meat and wool in- 
come of the Navajos. 

Tour flocks, I understand, have always "been above the av- 
erage Navajo sheep in quality. You have used, with the aid of the 
Government, good well-hred rams; you have sold your wethers and 
steers early; you have disposed of your barren or over-age ewes and 
cows, replaced them with vigorous breeding stock. Now the Govern- 
ment is asking your people to follow the example set them by you, 
their leader, to dispose of their over-age, unproductive animals 
and keep their vigorous productive breeding stock. In most of the 
districts the disposal of the excess horses and of the unproductive 
livestock will adjust the number of stock to or near the grazing 
capacity. And from the productive breeding stock the Navajos 
should, with good management, be able to obtain as much meat, wool 
and income as they obtain now from the larger number, including the 
excess horses. 

Is it unreasonable to ask your people to adopt the live- 
stock management methods which you have successf ully practiced for 
many years? 

Now I come to a point on which I fully agree with you. A 
total of 560,000 sheep units is not enough to support the increasing 
number of Navajos on the higher standard of living made possible by 
the large amount of wage work provided by the Government during the 
last five years- Though the total income from this number of sheep 
units should rapidly reach the income derived from the present 
flocks, it is still a fact that this present livestock income cannot 
and does not completely support the tribe . There have been for ten 
years and longer several thousand Navajo families without any live- 
stock whatsoever. There are almost 1,000 families without any live- 
stock, except horses. If all of these families were to be supplied 
with productive livestock sufficient to give them a bare living, 
say 100 ewes per family, additional range over and above the require- 
ments of the 560,000 sheep units would have to be provided. It 
would mean the addition of at least 4,500,000 acres to the reserva- 
tion. Where could such an amount of range land be obtained? 

Since it is manifestly impossible to obtain additional 
range in such quantities, since the range in the New Mexico boundary 
extension area will at best supply only a part of the total need of 
the resident Navajo population, the Government has, during the past 
five years, endeavored to replace and enlarge the farm land, irri- 
gated, flood-irrigated and dry-farmed, such a large part of which 
was destroyed through gully erosion caused by overgrazing. I cannot 
believe that you disapprove of these efforts to make available more 


farm land for the Navajos. Nor can I believe that you really 
meant to say that the Navajos could no longer obtain farming equip- 
ment through reimbursable loans because "the Government uses trac- 
tors and the farming is done with heavy equipment by white men." 
You know that tractors and heavy equipment are used to level the 
land and get it ready for farming by Navajos- You must also know 
that the abundant wage work has enabled your people to buy farm 
equipment without having to borrow the money from the Government. 
You also know that hundreds of Navajos, a good many of them well- 
to-do, have failed to repay the money they borrowed from the Gov- 
ernment, even when their earnings from Government work enabled 
them to do so. 

Perhaps you are out of touch with your people and do not 
know what the real situation is- This is what Benny Tohe of To- 
hatchi told the Senate Committee when it met at Window Rock in 
August 1936: "They brou^it it (the Soil Conservation program) 
out and presented it to our leaders some years ago and they agreed 
on the administration area at Mexican Springs. After that was 
agreed to by our leaders and the Government , they opened up work 
for our people from which they received pay. Where the Indians 
used to have broken-down wagons, they now have good ones, good 
harness, and in some places they improved their homes with the 
money they worked for . In some places they equipped themselves 
with farm implements. Another reason they are trying to save the 
land we have left; to some extent they have checked erosion, and 
in places where it was running down in deep arroyos, they have 
dammed them up and spread the water on the surface, making the 
vegetation come back." 

That leads us to your statement that the Soil Conservation 
Service had fenced good land and deprived the Navajo of its use. If 
you can point out to me definite, specific tracts fenced by the Soil 
Conservation Service as demonstration areas, without prior agree- 
ments with the occupants, I'll see to it that the condition is cor- 
rected- Similar allegations have been made scores of times, but in- 
variably investigation showed that the occupants had consented to 
the fencing and were making regulated use of the improved range 
within the fence. 

Your statement that the Indians cannot make a living farm- 
ing the additional land bought for them is true. But this land was 
not bought to be farmed. It was bought as grazing land, paid for 
at grazing land prices and is used for grazing. It was never in- 
tended for farming. 

In the last sentence of your letter your write: "The ones 
who are the worst hurt by the stock reduction are the poor Navajos 


in that the ones who are able to provide for them and give them 
things to eat are rendered incapable of so doing." Are you sure 
you mean to say what this sentence says? According to the owner- 
ship records, there are 232 families with more than 500 sheep and 
goats on the reservation; there are close to 4,000 families with 
leas than 100 sheep and goats; there are 2,500 families with no 
livestock at all* Do you really mean to state that the 232 fami- 
lies with more than 500 sheep are supporting in whole or in part 
more than 6,000 poor families? 

It is plain that in some of the districts the head stock- 
men who use more than their fair share of the tribal range will 
have to take their excess stock and, like the white commercial stock- 
men, lease range off the reservation to run this excess stock on. 
It has been reported to me that you are contemplating the leasing 
of land outside of the reservation for vour excess sotck. I do not 
know whether this report is true. But such leasing of range out- 
side of the reservation by large Navajo stock-owners shows one way 
of helping the tribe. Most of these big Navajo stockmen, I believe, 
are financially able to follow this course. In justice to the 4,000 
Navajo families with not enough range to support 100 sheep, they 
should take it. If they will do this, they can maintain their herds 
at the present level, maintain their income, less the cost of rent- 
ing outside range, and will continue to give the poorest Navajos 
something to eat. At the same time 4,000 of the small Navajo stock- 
men will have better flocks, better range and better incomes. 

If the 200 big Navajo stockmen operating like yourself on 
a commercial scale will cooperate and remove their excess stock to 
land leased by them outside of the reservation, the program can be 
carried through without inflicting any loss or hardship on the 
6,000 little subsistence operators. All these subsistence families 
are asked to do is to sell the horses they don't use and cull their 
flocks by selling or butchering the unproductive animals, to prac- 
tice the same kind of animal husbandry that made your operations 
such an outstanding success- Won't you help your people to save 
themselves and their land by spreading the facts about the Govern- 
ment's program among the Navajos? 

Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) John Collier 

n * * * * * * 



The following excerpts from a letter from the Reverend 
Richard H. Harper, of Albuquerque, New Mexico, indicate an error 
in a newspaper article from which "Indians At Work" quoted in July. 

"The excerpt in 'Indians At Work 1 , last July, taken from 
■The Kansas City Star', concerning the Geronimo Apaches, is most 
interesting. There is one error in the article of 'The Kansas City 
Star 1 as to the person who was responsible for the final release of 
Chiricahuas from their prisonership at Fort Sill. During this per- 
iod of their captivity at Fort Sill - in its later part - I was 
familiar with many of the proceedings concerning these Apaches. I 
knew Henry Roe Cloud when he was a student, at Yale, having met him 
in Oklahoma many times. He was, and is, a fine man. But, as far 
as all my information goes, he was not the one responsible for the 
release of the Chiricahuas (or 'Fort Sills', as they were often 
called, then). The Reverend Dr. Walter C. Roe, Superintendent v of 
Indian Missionary Work, under the Women's Board of Domestic Mis- 
sions, of the Reformed Church in America, is the man who so inter- 
ested himself and others in the release of this band of Indians as 
finally to bring it to consummation. To him belongs this credit 
(though he was not, at all, a man seeking credit for what he did). 

"To Dr. Henry Roe Cloud belongs great credit for all that 
he has done for the Indians; and I am glad to count him among my 
friends. But, to the best of my knowledge, it is an error to give 
only to him the credit for the release of the Geronimo Apaches. 

Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) Richard H. Harper" 


Among recent visitors at the Washington Office have been 
A. C. Monahan, Coordinator for Oklahoma and Kansas; A. M. Landman, 
Superintendent of the Five Civilized Tribes Agency, Muskogee, Okla- 
homa; and Arthur E. Stover, Superintendent of the Jicarilla Agency 
in New Mexico. Dr. Polk Richards, Medical Director in Charge of 
Trachoma Activities, and Dr. Fred Loe of Rosebud, came to Washing- 
ton also for a meeting of Indian Service trachoma consultants. 



The William W. Hastings Hospital at Tahlequah, and the 
Choctaw-Chickasaw Indian Hospital at Talihina were dedicated in 
October, with many distinguished visitors, both Indian and white, 
taking part in the ceremonies. At the William W. Hastings Hospital 
dedication on October 3, Senator Elmer Thomas, Representative Jack 
Nichols, and Dr. Charles M. Pearce, Oklahoma Commissioner of Health 
were among the speakers; also the Honorable Houston B. Teehee, Cher- 
okee, former member of Congress and formerly Registrar of the U. S. 
Treasury. At the Choctaw-Chickasaw dedication on October 4, Senator 
Thomas, Representative Wilburn Cartwright, and Dr. Pearce spoke; al- 
so Mr. William A. Durant, Principal Chief of the Choctaws. Mr. A. 
C. Monahan, Mr. A. M. Landman, and Dr. J. G. Townsend represented 
the Inaian Service on both occasions. 

♦ * * * » 


In an automobile accident, on the Navajo Reservation, 
Bert M. Staples of Coolidge, New Mexico, was instantly killed on 
October 9. As one of the most creative friends of Navajo crafts, 
as President of the United Indian Traders, and as an Intimate co- 
worker with the Indian Service, Mr. Staples had contributed in 
important ways to Indian life across many years. A disinterested 
idealist - even a dreamer - yet Mr. Staples had been able to dem- 
onstrate the economic advantage of the very best in Indian craft 
work. Nor were the Navajos, through his influence, held to tra- 
ditional forms. Innovations in silver work, of extraordinary 
beauty, came out of his workshop. 

« * « * * 


One of the unforgettable and really great personalities 
in Indian affairs passed away with the death, some weeks ago, of 
Emmet Wirt of Dulce, New Mexico. Emmet Wirt for forty years was 
the trader of the Ji car ilia Apaches. But much more: he lived 
among them as the white man who. at all times has known them best. 
Emmet Wirt was a rough product of the old Indian west, and he 
never conceded anything* to superficial appearances. Readers of 
"JCndiaae At Work" know how Mr. Wirt, beginning about three years 
ago, threw his immense influence into the organization of the 
Ji car ilia Apaches under the Indian Reorganization Act. The Emmet 
Wirt trading post is now the tribally-ownedt successfully operated 
store, brokerage house, and bank of the Jicarilla Tribe. 


Ponca Sub-Agency (Under Pawnee Agency), Oklahoma. 

The Ponca 
Indian Women's Club 
at Ponca City, Okla- 
homa, with its 45 
members, is typical 
of many similar ef- 
forts toward home 
and community improve- 
ment being made by 
groups of forward- 
looking Indian women. 

Members of 
this particular club 
all raised gardens 
this year and have 
their weekly meetings 

White Eagle 4-H Club 
Canning Group 

canned large quantities of their produce. At 
demonstrations in cooking and planning of meals have been held. 
Members have pieced quilts and made a large quantity of clothing; 
and in general they have interested themselves in civic betterment. 
The Indian Service's local extension workers and the field nurse 
have helped with the club's programs* 

The photograph above shows one of the extension activities 
being carried on at the Ponca Reservation: girls of the White Eagle 
4-H Club doing canning work. 


The art of hide tanning still lives at the Wind River 
Agency in Wyoming. A project to make buckskin suits for the boys' 
drum and bugle corps, in which the CCC-ID, WPA, and the Fort 
Washakie Women's Club are cooperating, has given the incentive 
for a hide tanning class, in which the art is being passed on to 
younger Indians. 

Mr. end Mrs. Bat Weed, Shoshones, skilled in the com- 
plicated process of Indian tanning, were employed as teachers. 

(From notes furnished by Paul 0.' Hines, Camp Assistant, 
CCC-ID, Wind River Reservation, Wyoming.) 



Shelter "belt Work At Potawat - 
omi ( Kansas ) Plowing operations 
in the Shelterbelt were slowed up 
due to the unusually heavy rains 
which we had in August. We had 
one rainstorm that netted four 
inches. However, we are not com- 
plaining, since this area is 
slated for the "best corn crop I 
have ever seen in this part of 
Kansas • 

Stone Masonry Work At Shawnee 
( Oklahoma ) The men who were more 
experienced in stone masonry were 
busy teaching the less experienced 
men in the art of laying stone. 
The new men are doing the work as 
per instructions and are interested 
and anxious to get in as many hours 
as possible on this work. 

We have begun a first-aid 
class in this vicinity and held our 
first class recently. One of the 
enrollee members is in charge of 
the class. Ten men were enrolled. 
Herbert Franklin . Leader. 

Repair Work On Dam 3R At Sells 
( Arizona ) Due to the heavy floods , 
this dam has been filled with an 
impervious silt which allows the 
water to flow over the dam, rather 
than soak in it. 

It is desirable to have this 
dam filled with gravel and we are 
preparing to excavate this silt. 
Frank H. Higgins . 

Work At Pierre Indian School 
( South Dakota) Since our water 

supply is abundant for our present 
needs, we are going right ahead 
with our preparation for the fall 
seeding of our grass, rather than 
in the spring. 

Work is progressing nicely and 
we feel that we will be one season 
ahead if we do the seeding now. We 
have lots of leveling to do and some 
ditches to put in, so we can flood 
our grass plots. Some pipe will be 
necessary to convey the water to 
our open ditches* 

There was more dirt and fill 
to be made on our Minor Trail proj- 
ect than we anticipated. The boys 
are making good progress on this 
particular job with the dump truck. 
We also hope to get started on the 
River Channel work very soon. J. 
J. Wood . Foreman . 

Dam Construction At Fort Berth - 
old ( North Dakota ) The construc- 
tion of Dam No. 24 is progressing. 
We have run into a lot of sandrock 
in the spillway cut into the side 
coulee, but I think this may make 
a better spillway out of it. We 
put a new cutting edge on the large 
scraper and some minor repairs on 
the RD 7 Cat. 

We have a new dam for the Num- 
ber 25 in the Charging Coulee which 
will hold more water where rodman 
Fred Fox and I have done some sur- 
vey work. 0. S. Swennlngson . 

Rodent Control At Chilocco 
School ( Oklahoma ) Two new Oliver 


mewing machines were received and 
put into use at Chilocco. Several 
acres of weeds were cut from range 
pasture land. Range that was de- 
veloped last spring by CCC-ID will 
also he mowed and kept clean of 
weed 8 • 

A three-acre prairie dog town 
was gone over with cyanide poison- 
ing. About two hundred and fifty 
dens were dusted with cyanide and 
upon rechecking the dens, we found 
that there were only two dens which 
were dug cut and were in use again. 
Achan Pap pan , Leader. 

Camp Maintenance At Navajo 
( Arizona ) The warehouse has been 
very busy sorting out all surplus 
supplies and equipment and sending 
same to the Fort Defiance warehouse. 
Only a few more loads are left to 
be sent out* 

Camp operation and maintenance 
crews have been busy cleaning the 
barracks after the enrollees left. 
They spent time moving beds and 
mattresses to the enrollee mess 
hall to be stored. The transpor- 
tation crew has been kept busy haul- 
ing freight to the Fort Defiance 
warehouse and lumber to the Chin 
Lee Camp. Joe Bello , Clerk . 

Activities At Carson ( Nevada ) 
The fence is progressing very well . 
The boys are stretching wire over 
a bad stretch of ground at the pres- 
ent time. Another crew is working 
on the diversion dam. The men are 
riprapping the side of the dam and 
are also making gates . 

Mr . Rowe from Los Angeles, Cal- 
ifornia, gave the enrollees a very 
interesting talk on poisonous rep- 

tiles and snakes. The boys enjoyed 
the lecture very much- Frank M. 
P archer . 

R odent Control Work At Fort 
Tot ten ( North Dakota ) Rodent con- 
trol work started on our Indian 
agricultural lands on April 1, but 
suspended work in order to work on 
the insect pest control project, We 
resumed work on pocket gophers the 
last week in July and found many 
places where the rodents had moved 
from adjoining white-owned lands 
to places which we had cleaned off 
previously. The rodents are very 
active and take the bait quite read- 
ily, so that we can expect to have 
all our farms cleaned up very soon. 

The Indians did an outstanding 
clean-up job of ground squirrels 
and pocket gophers in 1934 and 1935 , 
but on all land adjoining this reser- 
vation, and on some white-owned land 
within, very little control work was 
done, and the rodents drifted on In- 
dian lands and increased very quick- 

Many visitors have complimented 
the Indians on the good work they 
have done. Edwin C. Losby , Insect - 
Rodent Co ntrol Foreman • 

Work At Red Lake ( Minnesota ) 
The Blister Rust crew found a great 
number of ribes in the area worked 
last week. A total of 74,386 ribes 
were picked. The pine area which 
received protection amounted to 
thirty acres. 0. V. Fink . 

Fire Hazard Still Great At Tu - 
lalip ( Washington ) The fire hazard 
is still high and fire guards are 
still being carried on presuppression 
work. Thomas Lozeau, Ranger . 


Activities At Consolidated 
Chippewa ( Minnesota ) We have com- 
pleted about one -quarter mile of the 
Tote Road Truck Trail. We had very 
nice weather this week and the going 
was good. 

The truck trail maintenance 
crew covered about forty miles of 
truck trails this week. They are 
in first-class condition and we hope 
that they will stay that way until 
freezing weather. The perfect weath- 
er we are enjoying has helped a great 
deal in keeping them in good shape. 

Our leisure time activities were 
about the same as they were last week. 
The boys loaded more pulp. Those 
that did not load pulp, amused them- 
selves in the recreation building, 
either boxing, punching the bag, or 
playing basket ball. There is, of 
course, the radio and the reading 
room. George H. Thomson . 

New Dam At Calumet - Cheyenne & 
Arapaho ( Oklahoma ) The new dam at 
Calumet is working out nicely. We 
are practically finished with the 
construction, but have a little bit 
of finishing work yet to be done. 
This dam is in a good location and 
will furnish stock water for several 
different families. John G-reany . 

necessary repairs have been made. 
It is our plan to make a monthly 
inspection. Levi Beaver . 

Truck Trail Maintenance At 
( Tohatchi ) Navajo ( New Mexico ) Main- 
tenance work has been completed on 
the truck trail leading from Tohatchi 
over the mountain- This work is 
greatly appreciated by the Indians 
living on the mountain, and also 
by those who use the trail - but 
more so by the Indians who have 
farms on the mountain, because in 
the fall of the year, they have to 
haul their produce and grains over 
this trail- The condition of the 
trail before we completed our main- 
tenance work on it prohibited them 
from hauling large quantities of 
produce. N. L. Roubid eaux, Foreman 

V ocational Instruction At Salem 
School ( Oregon ) Vocational instruc- 
tion this week has consisted of me- 
chanical drawing, somewhat technical, 
learning to define architectural 
symbols, electrical symbols and 
plumbing symbols, symbols for repre- 
senting the cut surfaces of section- 
al views of various kinds of lumber, 
etc. Some time was spent over round 
table talks on safety precaution; 
not taking unnecessary chances where 
someone might get hurt during the 
execution of general routine and 
everyday work . James L . Shawver , 
Dairyman . 

CCC-ID Activities Appreciated 
By Indians at Mescalero ( New Mexico ) 
While a CCC-ID group was at work on 
a fence near the home of one of the 
Indians here, the lany of the house 
invited the boys to a dinner, espec- 
ially prepared for them by her, to 
show her appreciation for their 
fine and helpful work. 

We have just finished making a 
survey of all the trucks and cars in 
the field. The purpose of this sur- 
vey is to promote safety in the oper- 
ation of vehicles. Each vehicle is 
given a thorough examination and a 
report is made in triplicate. One 
copy is sent to the district office 
and one is turned in at the garage. 
All cars and trucks needing repairs 
are reported and called in until the